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據上《永久域名在线精品》報道,在各類文本的翻譯中,政治文獻的中譯英翻譯往往更為嚴謹。譯者的首要考慮是完整、准確傳達原文,語意不能有任何疏漏、增添甚或歪《永久域名在线精品》曲,譯文從結構、句式、篇章上也都更貼合中文,因而譯者自由發揮的空間相對有限。但是,為使譯文更加精准,更符合英文的表述習慣,必要時,我們也需要在准確理解原文的基礎上,在翻譯過程中做一些加減法。正確地使用加《永久域名在线精品》減法則,不僅不會改變原文意思,而且會提高譯文質量,使譯文更准確、地道、流暢。所謂加法,就是在原文基礎上增加表述,有時是擴充翻譯,或者“顯性翻譯”,就是將中文精煉的表述拓展開,或者將中文隱含的意思翻譯出來,以使譯文上下連貫,邏輯通順﹔有時是補充翻譯,以使譯文語法結構正確,意思完整。減法就是對中文的表述做必要的綜合、刪減或省略翻譯,以使譯文更地道,流暢。不管是做加法還是減法,我們必須加詞不加意,減詞不減意,最終目的仍然是既准確傳達中文原意,又保留原文風格風貌。政治文獻的中譯英翻譯中,需要做加法的情況通常包括:1. 對具有中國特色的政治術語,或者高度概括性政治概念、方針政策需要做解釋性翻譯時,我們會使用《永久域名在线精品》加法,進行“擴充翻譯”,便於英語讀者理解。例如:開展財政支持農民專業合作組織發展創新試點和新型農業生產社會化服務體系建設試點。We carried out trials of giving financial support for development of and innovations by specialized farmer cooperatives and pilot projects for developing a new system whereby various sectors of society provide services for a《永久域名在线精品》gricultural production.2. 中文政治文獻中有很多無主句,或者有的句子缺少其它成分,這時我們也需要做加法,添加必要的句子成分,使英譯文句子結構完整,語法正確。例如:[1] 厲行勤儉節約。Every area was economized.[2] 建立將政府性基金中應統籌使用的資金調入公共財政預算的機制。We will put in place a mechanism for transferring money of which use should be under the overall planning of government-managed funds into the public finance budget.3. 在通透理解中文原文的基礎上,有時需要將原文隱含的意思或者缺失的表述補譯出來,以使譯文邏輯上更通順。例如:[1] 完善國家自主創新示范區試點政策,擴大中央級事業單位科技成果處置權和收益權管理改革試點范圍,延長試點期限。We improved the policy on the trial establishment of national innovation demonstration zones, and extended the pilot reform to more selected institutions affiliated to the central government to allow them to transfer and profit from their scientific and technological advances for a longer period of time.[2] 地方政府債券自發代還試點范圍繼續擴大。More local governments were selected to begin issuing their own bonds on a trial basis that the central government would pay off.例句[1]的英文譯文中增加了“selected”一詞,中文原文雖然沒有出現對應的表述,卻是符合中國實際情況的,隻有在讀透原文,並了解相關政策的具體實施情況的基礎上才能在翻譯中做出這樣恰當的加法。同樣,在翻譯例句[2]時,必須先了解地方証券“自發代還”這一政策,弄明白由誰償還,才能准確做加法,將中文中缺失的表述補充完整,便於讀者理解。4. 中文出現大段文字表訴,隱含多層邏輯關系,卻沒有連接詞,這時,我們也需要在讀通讀透原文的基礎上,理清其內在邏輯關系,添加必要的連接詞或做其他添加,以使譯文層次分明,行文連貫通順,並且避免單調重復。例如:[1] 教育支出3883.91億元,完成預算的94%,增長2.7%,主要是據實結算的學生資助補助經費減少…Spending on education was 388.319 billion yuan, 94% of the budgeted figure and an increase of 2.7%. Spending came out short of the budget mainly because student financial aid and subsidies executed according to the actual numbers of students were less 《永久域名在线精品》than the 《永久域名在线精品》budgeted figure…[2] 圍繞落實《黨政機關厲行節約反對浪費條例》,發布了中央和國家機關會議費、培訓費、差旅費、外賓接待經費、因公臨時出國經費和因公短期出國培訓經費等管理辦法,增強制度的可操作性和權威性,為建立健全厲行節約反對浪費長效機制奠定了基礎。Focusing on implementing the Regulations on Practicing Thrift《永久域名在线精品》 and Opposing Waste in Party and Government Bodies, we formulated measures for managing expenditures of the bodies of the CPC Central Committee and the central government on meetings, training, business travel, hospitality for foreign guests, temporary overseas trips, short-term overseas training and other official business purposes, thus making the system more operational and authoritative and providing a foundation for establishing a sound, permanent mechanism.5. 對於中國特有的稱謂,包括地名,物名,需要展開翻譯,譯文內容“具體化”。例如:開展東北四省區“節水增糧行動”。We launched a campaign to save water and increase grain output in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces and Inner Mongolia.政治文獻中譯英翻譯中需要做減法的情況,通常包括以下幾種情況:1. 中文中出現重復強調,並列表述時。中文為了突出強調,或考慮到文章的工整押韻,時常會出現重復表述,或者用不同表述表達同一個意思,這時我們可以適當做減法,合並同類項或者翻譯一種表述既可。例如:[1] 根據國家中長期發展規劃和宏觀調控需要,確定中期財政政策,研究編制三年財政規劃,對規劃期內一些重大改革、重要政策和重大項目,研究政策目標、運行機制、評價辦法…。On the basis of the national plan for long- and mid-term development and macro-control needs, we will develop mid-term fiscal policies and formulate a three-year fiscal plan. With regard to the major reforms, policies and projects that will be included in that plan, we will research policy goals, operational mechanisms, and assessment methods.[2] 各地區、各部門在黨中央、國務院的堅強領導下,團結一心、奮力拼搏,經濟社會發展穩中有進、穩中向好。All regions and government departments united as one, worked hard, and made progress in economic and social development while maintaining stability under the firm leadership of th《永久域名在线精品》e Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council.2. 中文多次重復出現同一名詞,或者動詞短語時,可以靈活運用英文中的代詞,為譯文“減肥瘦身”。例如:[1] 合理區分公共性的層次,穩步推進民生相關領域的制度建設,鼓勵社會資本參與民生事業建設。We steadily built up systems for improving people’s well-being on the basis of determining how public programs for this purpose are, and encouraged the use of nongovernmental capital in such programs.[2] 出台了政府向社會力量購買服務的指導意見,積極組織開展政府購買服務工作。We have unveiled guidelines for government procurement of public services from nongovernmental sectors and actively organized and carried out this work.3. 當中文的表述呈“展開式”,即用多個動詞或短句表述同一個意思時,我們也可以對其進行綜合和整合,在不丟失原文意思的情況下,簡潔而貼切的翻譯。例如:開展了財政存量資金的摸底和分析工作。We obtained a clear picture of the funds the government had in hand.4《永久域名在线精品》.當中文中有既存事實性表述時,英文中也可以省略不譯,這樣不僅不會漏譯,而且會使譯文在邏輯上更通順,行文更簡潔。例如:[1] 中央《永久域名在线精品》與地方的事權和支出責任劃分存在不清晰、不合理、不規問題。Powers and spending responsibilities between the central government and local governments are not clearly defined, rational, or standardized.[2] 樹立起個人努力、各方面合理承擔責任、勤勞致富的民生理念。We cultivated the idea of everyone working hard, all sectors of society sharing responsibility, and getting rich through hard work.例句[1]中“不清晰、不合理、不規范”就是問題所在,所以譯文直接翻譯問題內容,而不拘泥於原文“存在…問題”的句式結構,這種處理是恰當的。與此類似,例句[2]中“個人努力、各方面合理承擔責任、勤勞致富”的理念顯然是和民生有關的,因此翻譯過程中做了減法,將原文“民生理念”中的“民生”隱去不譯,也是合理的。5. 中文中出現無實指意義的虛詞時,我們也可以果斷減掉中文中的冗余,為譯文減負。例如:推進新能源財稅政策轉型。We overhauled the fiscal and tax policies on new energy.當然,做好政治文獻中譯英翻譯中的加減法,沒有放之四海而皆准的定律。我們往往需要結合上下文,靈活處理。雖然受其性質的約束,政治文獻的翻譯,不可能像文學翻譯或其他文本的翻譯那樣對原文進行大刀闊斧的調整、修減和擴充,但是做好必要的刪減和增添,我們的譯文才能像修剪得當、裝扮適宜、值得觀賞的花卉盆景一樣,更具有可讀性和吸引力,更有效地對外宣傳我們黨和政府的執政理念和方針政策。(作者單位:中共中央編譯局中央文獻翻譯部英文處)